Shungites and Their Industrial Potential

A study carried out in 2019 with more interesting results.


Shungite rocks are widespread in Zaonezhye, Republic of Karelia, where they constitute dozens of carbonaceous rock deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Onega structure with predicted carbon resources of more than 4 billion tons. The lower age boundary is of 2.1 Ga. Shungite rocks belong to carbonaceous rock class. These rocks metamorphosed in greenshcist facies of muscovite-chlorite-biotite subfacies are unique natural, noncrystalline, non-graphitized, fullerene-like carbon. They have various structural-mineralogical levels: (a) supramolecular, (b) molecular, (c) electron-energetic, (d) structural-physical and (e) geologic-genetic (parametric). Shungite rocks contain shungite carbon (shungite matter) and a variety minerals, microminerals and nanominerals. The applications of shungite rocks are determined with regard for their natural types. Authors had shown their intergrated application in ore-thermal processes.

See below for the link to the study.